Laatste update: 2 juni 2014
Functies in de Stad
Ruimtelijke Kwaliteit
Methode
Kavel / Blok
Buurt / Wijk
Stad / Regio
Land
Academisch / professioneel werk
Auteurs: The City Form Research Group
Reviewer: Elena Selezneva

Gerelateerde documenten

methoden
theorieën

Parameters

Reach

The “Reach” measure (Sevtsuk, 2010) captures how many surrounding buildings each building reaches within a given Search Radius on the network.

Gravity

the Gravity measure assumes that accessibility at building i is proportional to the attractiveness (weight) of destinations j surrounding i,and inversely proportional to the distances between i and j

Betweenness

The Betweenness of a node (building) is defined as the fraction of shortest paths between pairs of other nodes in the network that pass by node i.

Closeness

The Closeness of an Input Building is defined as the inverse of cumulative distance required to reach from that building to all other buildings in the system that fall within the Search Radius along the shortest paths.

Straightness

The Straightness metric illustrates the extent to which the shortest paths from a node of interest to all other nodes in the system resemble straight Euclidian paths.

Referenties

Porta, S., Crucitti, P., & Latora, V. (2005). The network analysis of urban streets: a primal
approach. Environment and Planning B, 35(5), 705-725.
Sevtsuk, A., Mekonnen, M. (2012). “Urban Network Analysis Toolbox“, International Journal of
Geomatics and Spatial Analysis, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 287-305, 2012.
Porta S, Latora V, 2007, “Multiple Centrality Assessment: mapping centrality
in networks of urban spaces”, Urban Sustainability through Environmental
Design 101-105.
Urban Network Analysis Toolbox

Samenvatting

Urban Network Analysis (UNA) toolbox enables urban designers and planners to describe the complex spatial patterns of cities using mathematical network analysis methods and thereby address some fundamental questions of good city design. Such tools can support better informed and more resilient urban design and planning in a context of rapid urbanization. Network centrality measures are useful predictors for a number of interesting urban phenomena. They help explain, for instance, on which streets or buildings one is most likely to find local commerce, where foot or vehicular traffic is expected to be highest, and why city land values vary from one location to another (A. Sevtsuk, 2013). The Urban Network Analysis Toolbox offers a framework that allows to describe the relationship between movement, places and institutions. It abstractly represents physical reality of urban environment as a combination of 3 elements : links representing paths along which travel can occur, nodes (or intersections) where paths cross forming a particular public space, and buildings representing ultimate destination points where the movement of people, goods, and information begins or ends. The different specifications or centrality induces of UNA yield a series of results describing proximity and adjacency between people and places. It allows urban designers and planners to compute five types of graph analysis measures on spatial networks: Reach; Gravity; Betweenness; Closeness; and Straightness. UNA Toolbox is distributed as free and open-source plugin-in built on-top of the GIS platform which allows to easily combine the Urban Network Analysis with other type of data and other Spatial Analysis approaches. Though primarily developed for the analysis of urban street- and building-networks, the tool are equally well suited for other spatial networks, such as railway networks, highway networks, or utility networks. The toolbox is built for easy scaling – it can operate on small-scale and detailed networks of dense urban areas, as well as large-scale regional networks. The toolbox requires ArcGIS 10 software with an ArcGIS Network Analyst Extension.

Beschrijving

In studying the spatial configurations of cities, and their related social, economic, and environmental processes centrality is a key factor in shaping urban space and urban life (Porta, Crucitti, Latora, 2008). Understanding and capturing it is crucial to the functioning of our cities. Currently, centrality is a fundamental concept in network analysis which persuades the capturing the structural aspects of it as well as its multifold nature. UNA Toolbox is aimed at urban designers, architects, planners, geographers, and spatial analysts who are interested in studying the spatial configurations of cities, and their related social, economic, and environmental processes. The tool is a structured process aimed at the evaluation of the spatial distribution of centrality over geographic systems like systems of urban streets or spaces. Using the Toolbox will help to reveal hidden hierarchical order of urban spaces, to predict the spatial distribution of social-economic development, to help to identify urban factors for pedestrian flows, land use, way-finding, bottom-up opportunities, etc.

The tool incorporates three important features that make them particularly suited for spatial analysis on urban street networks and distinguishes it from other existing spatial network analysis techniques. First, they can account for both geometry and topology in the input networks, using either metric distance (e.g. Meters) or topological distance (e.g. Turns) as impedance factors in the analysis. Second, unlike previous software tools that operate with two network elements (nodes and edges), the UNA tools include a third network element - buildings - which are used as the spatial units (destination points) of analysis for all measures. Two neighboring buildings on the same street segments can therefore obtain different accessibility results. And third, the UNA tool optionally allows buildings to be weighted according to their particular characteristics - more voluminous, more populated, or otherwise more important buildings can be specified to have a proportionately stronger effect on the analysis outcomes, yielding more accurate and reliable results to any of the specified measures.

The toolbox (Sevtsuk, Mekonnen 2012) can be used to compute five types of network analysis measures on spatial networks: Reach; Gravity; Betweenness; Closeness; and Straightness. The toolbox builds upon previous efforts by the Martin Center for Built Form and Land Use Studies, the Space Group at the UCL, the Human Space Lab, and other research work in the area of spatial network analysis (Martin & March 1971; Harary 1969; Porta, Crucitti et al, 2005).

The user can choose which of the five network analysis measurements are to be computed by checking the boxes next to the five measures: Reach, Gravity, Betweenness, Closeness, and Straightness. These measures are described below.

1. Reach. 
The “Reach” measure (Sevtsuk, 2010) captures how many surrounding buildings each building reaches within a given Search Radius on the network. Reach can be calibrated to measure access to any destination (intersections, buildings or other nodes) within a given Search Radius (Search Radius input defines the buffer radius used for computing the specified measures) or the default infinite radius. The same computations can be run for any other preferred attribute of a node such us building volumes or inhabitants number, etc. to capture Reach to activities or land use destinations. One can use the number of jobs, the number of residents, or the number of business establishments in the surrounding buildings.

2. Gravity.
Whereas the Reach measure simply counts the number of destinations around each building within a given Search Radius (optionally weighted by building attributes), the Gravity measure additionally factors in the spatial impedance required to travel to each of the destinations.

3. Betweenness.
This index is based on the idea that a node is central if it lies between many other nodes, in the sense that it is traversed by many of the shortest path connecting couples of nodes. The Betweenness measure is typically used to estimate the potential of passersby at different buildings (nodes) on the network.

4.Closeness.
Closeness measures to what extent a certain node (building) is near all the other nodes in a system along the shortest path. In other words, itis defined as the inverse of cumulative distance required to reach from that building to all other buildings in the system that fall within the Search Radius along the shortest paths. High closeness will have many connections within a short distance while low closeness will have few connections at short distance.

5.Straightness.
Straightness centrality or “being central as being straight to the others”. This centrality index originates from the idea the efficiency in the communication between two nodes in a system increases when there is less deviation of their shortest path from the virtual straight line (straight Euclidean path) connecting them.

Trefwoorden

complexity, software, functions, accessibility, reach, closeness, spatial centrality, complex networks, commerce, networks, straightness, local, space, building, network, interactions, collective values, open source, diversity, graphs, spatial analysis, public, connectivity, centrality, flows, vitality, street networks, spatial, traffic, wayfinding, ArcGIS, street centrality, patterns, destinations, passersby potential, land values, gravity, buildings, location, betweenness
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The summary brings closure in the topic and sums up your overall ideas despite the fact that providing a final perspective on your topic. Your summary should consist of three to 5 good sentences. Simply examination your main points and offer reinforcement of your thesis. 7. Incorporate the finishing touches. After creating your summary, you would likely think that you simply have completed your essay. Wrong. Before you consider this a completed do the trick, you must pay out attention to all the small-scale details. Check the order of your paragraphs. Your strongest points should be the 1st and last paragraphs in the body, with the others falling during the middle. Also, make sure that your paragraph order makes feeling. If your essay is describing a technique, this sort of as how to make a superb chocolate cake, make sure that your paragraphs fall inside the correct order. Examine the instructions to your essay, if applicable. A lot teachers and scholarship kinds follow different formats, and you must double check instructions to ensure that your essay is inside desired format. Finally, look at what you have written. Reread your paper and check to see if it makes perception. Make sure that sentence flow is smooth and increase phrases to help connect thoughts or ideas. Check your essay for grammar and spelling mistakes. Congratulations! You have just written a quality essay. Will want money to spend for college? Every semester, Fastweb helps thousands of students shell out for school by matching them to scholarships, grants and awards for which they actually qualify. Sign up today to get started. You'll uncover scholarships like the Course Hero's $5,000 Scholarship. and quick to enter scholarships like Niche $2,000 No Essay Scholarship. 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