Laatste update: 28 maart 2014
Ruimtelijke Kwaliteit
Kavel / Blok
Buurt / Wijk
Academisch / professioneel werk
Auteurs: Permeta Architecten, Meta Berghauser Pont, Per Haupt
Reviewer: Camila Pinzon


Base Land Area (A)

"The boundaries of a plan area can be defined in various ways. The method of establishing
boundaries is of particular importance in cases where areas are to be compared with each
other, or used as references and when correlations, or associations, between two indicators are tested. There are roughly three ways of defining area boundaries:
- Administrative boundaries, such as cadastral boundaries, postal areas or agreed
upon boundaries, such as municipal boundaries registered by the Dutch Land Registry
Office (Kadaster), and neighbourhood boundaries (wijken and buurten), defined by
the Dutch municipalities;
- Projected boundaries, such as an arbitrary grid of pixels or circles, drawn with a
specific radius, often used in GIS applications;
- Generated boundaries based on morphological characteristics."
(Berghauser Pont, Haupt, 2010)

Eenheid: m2

Network lenght (L)

"At the scale of the urban fabric, which is the focus of this study, the network is the access street."
(Berghauser Pont, Haupt, 2010)

Eenheid: m, km

Gross floor area (F)

"The definition used here is taken from the Dutch standard NEN 2580 (NEN 2007). The basic
rule is that the gross floor area of a building is the sum of all surfaces, measured per floor,
along the perimeter of the partitions that surround the building, including underground floor
area and floor area under a pitched roof."
(Berghauser Pont, Haupt, 2010)

Eenheid: m2

Built area or footprint (B)

"The built area is defined as the floor area, measured at ground level along the perimeter of the dividing partitions of the building, and thus excludes overhanging or underground built areas."
(Berghauser Pont, Haupt, 2010)

Eenheid: m2


 Berghauser Pont, M. & Haupt, P. 2010 Spacematrix. NAI Publishers, Rotterdam


 Meta Berghauser Pont, Per Haupt
Spacemate, Spacematrix


"This method makes it possible to describe an urban environment by using a set of density variables (FSI, GSI, OSR and L). These quantitative aspects can be used both to describe and characterize, as well as prescribe different urban environments. Spacemate thus enables different actors in the design and planning process to relate different programmatic demands to different spatial solutions." (


The different variables of density studied through Spacemate/Spacematrix are: FSI, GSI, OSR. These variables are extracted from differen combinations of the basic parameters: A, L, F and B (see parameters, right side).

The four solutions in the image have the same FSI but different GSR, OSR and L

"We suggest that a multivariable density concept consisting of the three fundamental indicators intensity (FSI), compactness (GSI) and network density (N) can offer a method that is specific enough to allow for the definition of urban types, as well as economic enough to ensure that excessive amounts of data can be managed without drowning in too many overdetailed definitions."

Floor Space Index (FSI): 
The FSI expresses the built intensity of an area.
FSI = gross floor area / plan area

Gross Space Index (GSI): 
GSI, or coverage, demonstrates the relationship between built and non-built space and is
calculated as follows for all levels of scale as described earlier:
GSI=footprint of (m2) / area of aggregation (m2)
This index uses the unit square metres per square metres (m2/m2).

The variable OSR, or spaciousness, is a measure of the amount of non-built space at ground
level per square metre of gross floor area. This figure provides an indication of the pressure
on non-built space. If more floor area is developed in an area (with the same footprint), the
OSR decreases and the number of people who will use the non-built space increases. The
unit of OSR is m2/m2.
OSR = (1–GSI) / FSI

"Through the study of the different density variables: Building Intensity (FSI), Coverage (GSI) and Network density (N) it is possible to understand the urban form which relates to those variables. There are 8 clusters of building types according to the position in the Spacemate:"

a. Low-rise point type
b. low-rise strip type
c. hybrid low-rise strip/block type
d. low-rise block type
e. mid-rise strip type
f. hybrid mid-rise strip/block type
g. mid-rise block type
h. hybrid high-rise point/strip type

Note: all the quotations in this text are from: Berghauser Pont, M. & Haupt, P. 2010 Spacematrix. NAI Publishers, Rotterdam


urban form, urban density, urban morpholoy
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